Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture World Heritage Site
Ibiza, biodiversité et culture, Spain
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Ibiza (Spanish: [iˈβiθa]) or Eivissa (Catalan: [əjˈvisə]) is a Spanish island in the Mediterranean Sea 79 km off the coast of the city of Valencia in Spain. It is the third largest of the Balearic Islands, an autonomous community of Spain. With Formentera, it is one of the two Pine Islands or Pityuses. Its largest cities are Ibiza Town (Catalan: Vila d'Eivissa, or simply Vila), Santa Eulària des Riu and Sant Antoni de Portmany. Its highest point, called Sa Talaiassa or Sa Talaia, is 475 m/1,558 ft above sea level.
The island is well-known for its summer club parties which attract large numbers of tourists, but the island and the Spanish Tourist Office have been working in order to promote more family-oriented tourism. Though some dispute the island's ability to attract higher income families in large numbers, due to a lack of professionalism in the hospitality and service sector, the island is keen to dispel its image as merely a destination for young clubbers. Noted clubs include Space, Pacha, Privilege (ex Ku), Amnesia, DC10, Eden,and Es Paradis. Probably the most famous bar on the island is Café del Mar. This bar is significantly connected with the music genre of chill-out music. The other notable player in the entertainment world in recent years has been Ibiza Rocks who feature more live acts than the established clubs. The brand now runs the most famous youth hotel on the island, Ibiza Rocks Hotel. Ibiza is also home to the legendary "port" in the district of Ibiza, a popular stop for many tourists and now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The official name of the island is in Catalan Eivissa (pronounced [əjˈvisə]). The name in Spanish is Ibiza (pronounced [iˈβiθa]). In British English, the name is usually pronounced in an approximation of the Spanish (/ɪˈbiːθə, ɪˈviːθə/), while in American English the pronunciation is more anglicized, or closer to Latin American Spanish (/ɪˈbiːzə/,/iːˈbiːsə/).
In 654 BC Phoenician settlers founded a port in the Balearic Islands, as Ibossim (from the Phoenician iboshim dedicated to the god of the music and dance Bes). It was later known to Romans as "Ebusus." The Greeks, who came to Ibiza during the time of the Phoenicians, were the first to call the two islands of Ibiza and Formentera the Pityûssai (Πιτυοῦσσαι, "pine-covered islands"; a translation of the Phoenician name). With the decline of Phoenicia after the Assyrian invasions, Ibiza came under the control of Carthage, also a former Phoenician colony. The island produced dye, salt, fish sauce (garum), and wool.
A shrine with offerings to the goddess Tanit was established in the cave at Es Culleram, and the rest of the Balearic Islands entered Eivissa's commercial orbit after 400 BC. Ibiza was a major trading post along the Mediterranean routes. Ibiza began establishing its own trading stations along the nearby Balearic island of Majorca such as Na Guardis, from which large quantities of renowned Balearic slingers were hired as mercenaries who fought for Carthage.
During the Second Punic War, the island was assaulted by the two Scipio brothers in 209 BC but remained loyal to Carthage. With Carthaginian military luck running out on the Iberian mainland, Ibiza was last used by the fleeing Carthaginian General Mago to gather supplies and men before sailing to Minorca and then to Liguria. Ibiza negotiated a favorable treaty with the Romans, which spared Ibiza from further destruction and allowed it to continue its Carthaginian-Punic institutions well into the Empire days, when it became an official Roman municipality. For this reason, Ibiza today offers excellent examples of late Carthaginian-Punic civilization. During the Roman Empire, the island became a quiet imperial outpost, removed from the important trading routes of the time.
After the fall of the Roman empire and a brief period of first Vandal and then Byzantine rule, the island was conquered by the Moors, as well as much of the Iberian peninsula. Under Islamic rule, Ibiza came in close contact with the city of Dénia (the closest port in the nearby Iberian peninsula, located in the Valencian Community) as the two areas were administered jointly by the Taifa of Denia.
Ibiza together with the islands of Formentera and Menorca were invaded by the Norwegian king Sigurd I of Norway in the spring of 1110 on his crusade to Jerusalem. The king had previously conquered the cities of Sintra, Lisboa and Alcácer do Sal and given them over to Christian rulers, in an effort to weaken the Muslim grip on the Iberian peninsula. King Sigurd continued to Sicily where he visited king Roger II of Sicily.
The island was conquered by the Christian Aragonese King James I of Aragon in 1235. Since then, the island has had its own self-government in several forms but in 1715 King Philip V of Spain abolished the local government's autonomy. The arrival of democracy in the late 1970s led to the Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands. Today the island is part of the Balearic Autonomous Community, along with Majorca, Minorca and Formentera.
Ibiza is the larger of a group of the western Balearic archipelago called the Pitiusas or "Pine Islands" composed of itself and Formentera. The Balearic island chain includes over fifty islands, many of which are uninhabited. The highest point of the island is Sa Talaiassa, 475 metres.
Demographically, Eivissa displays a very peculiar configuration, as census agencies diverge on exact figures. According to the 2001 national census, Ibiza had 88,076 inhabitants (against 76,000 in 1991, 64,000 in 1981, 45,000 in 1971, and 38,000 in 1961). However, two years later, this figure jumped to 108,000 (Govern de les Illes Balears - IBAE 2004), and by the start of 2010 had reached 132,637. This rapid growth stems from the amnesty which incorporated a number of unregistered foreign migrants. In terms of origin, about 55 per cent of island residents were born in Ibiza, 35 per cent are immigrants from mainland Spain (mostly working-class families from Andalusia, and the remainder from Catalonia, Valencia and Castilla), and the remaining 10 to 15 per cent are foreign, dual and multi-national citizens of the EU and abroad (Govern de les Illes Balears - IBAE 1996). In decreasing order, foreigners are Germans, British, Latin Americans, Moroccans, French, Italians, Dutch, in addition to a myriad of other nationalities. This mosaic reflects the fluidity of foreigners living and moving across the island, in ways that render impossible to exactly quantify the expatriate population (Rozenberg 1990).
Notable former resident of Ibiza include English punk musician John Simon Ritchie (Sid Vicious), and comic actor Terry Thomas Hungarian master forger Elmyr de Hory. American fraudster Clifford Irving and film director Orson Welles
While Catalan (native language) and Spanish are the official languages of Ibiza, a dialect of Catalan called Eivissenc or Ibicenco is more readily spoken by both the residents and those of Formentera." Additionally, Ibiza because of the influence of tourism (see below) and expatriates living in or maintaining residences on the island other languages, most commonly English and German, are also spoken. Polylinguality is the norm, not the exception.
Ibiza is considered a popular tourist destination, especially due to its legendary and at times riotous nightlife centered around two areas: Ibiza Town, the island's capital on the southern shore and Sant Antoni to the West. Well-known nightclubs are Privilege, Eden, Es Paradís, Amnesia, Space, Pacha, Underground, Gala Night and DC10. During the summer, the top producers and DJs in dance come to the island and play at the various clubs, in between touring to other international destinations. Some of the most famous DJs run their own weekly nights around the island. Many of these DJs use Ibiza as an outlet for presenting new songs within the house, trance and techno genres of electronic dance music.
Since 2005 live music event Ibiza Rocks has helped to redefine the Ibiza party landscape. Bands such as Arctic Monkeys, Kasabian, The Prodigy, WasteMan Tobola and the Kaiser Chiefs have played in the courtyard of the Ibiza Rocks Hotel. For the last 3 years the UK's BBC Radio 1 has focussed its Ibiza Weekend broadcast from the venue and as a result the island is now seen as a more diverse place that is not only about sex and drugs.
The season traditionally begins at the start of June with Space and DC10's opening parties and finishes on the first weekend of October with the Closing Parties. A typical schedule for clubbers going to Ibiza includes waking at noon, early evening naps, late night clubbing, and "disco sunrises." Due to Ibiza's notable tolerance toward misbehavior from young adult tourists, it has acquired the sobriquet "Gomorrah of the Med." Also well-known is Café del Mar, a long-standing bar where many tourists traditionally view the sunset made famous by José Padilla. That and other bars close by have become an increasingly popular venue for club pre-parties after sunset, hosting popular DJ performers.
The island's government is trying to encourage a more cultured and quieter tourism scene, passing rules including the closing of all nightclubs by 6 a.m. at the latest, and requiring all new hotels to be 5-star. The administration is wanting to attract a more international mixture of tourists.
Though primarily known for its party scene, large portions of the island are registered as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and thus protected from the development and commercialization of the main cities. A notable example includes "God's Finger" in the Benirràs Bay as well as some of the more traditional Ibicenco cultural sites. Because of its rustic beauty, companies and artists alike frequently use the island for photographic and film shoots. A monument ("The Egg") erected in honour of Christopher Columbus can be found in Sant Antoni: Ibiza is one of several places purporting to be his birthplace.
Since the early days of mass tourism on the island there have been a large number of development projects ranging from successful ventures such as the super clubs at Space and Privilege however there have also been a number of failed development projects such as Josep Lluís Sert's abandoned hotel complex at Cala D'en Serra, the half completed and now demolished "Idea" nightclub in San Antonio and the ruins of a huge restaurant/nightclub in the hills near Sant Josep called "Festival Club" that only operated for three summer seasons in the early 1970s.
Since the global economic crisis and the end of the Spanish property bubble in 2008 a large number of housing and tourist developments have been abandoned or put on hold as developers have struggled to get more credit from the banks and the projected profit margins fell significantly due to the falling number of visitors to the island.
Eivissa, Cala salada, at north of San Antony de Portmany
Staircase in Eivissa
Cala d'Hort, Eivissa
Sant Antoni de Portmany from afar
The egg of Columbus in Sant Antoni
Playa d'en Bossa beach looking North towards Ibiza town
Puig de Missa in Santa Eulària
Marina of Santa Eulària des Riu
Ibiza is served by Ibiza Airport.
Ibiza is administratively part of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands, whose capital is Palma, on the island of Majorca. Ibiza comprises 5 of the community's 67 municipalities. Clockwise from the south coast, these are:
These municipalities had a total population of 88,076 inhabitants (as of the 2001 census), which had risen to an estimated 132,637 by the start of 2010, and have a land area of 572.56 km2 (221.07 sq mi).
Ibiza's local cuisine is typically Mediterranean. One of the typical culinary products of the island is sweets known as flaons.
A number of novels have been written using Ibiza as the setting, including Joshua Then and Now by Mordecai Richler, Soma Blues by Robert Sheckley,Vacation in Ibiza by Lawrence Schimel,A Short Life on a Sunny Isle: An Alphonse Dantan Mystery by Hannah Blank,They Are Ruining Ibiza by A.C. Greene and The Python Project by Victor Canning. The 1960 novel Out of the Red into the Blue by the English novelist Barbara Comyns Carr is based on the island.
The 1969 film More was filmed on location in Ibiza, and the soundtrack by Pink Floyd features a song titled "Ibiza Bar." The 2004 film It's All Gone Pete Tong was also filmed in Ibiza. Also the 2001 film Kevin and Perry Go Large was filmed on location in Ibiza.
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