Masai Mara National Reserve
Masai Mara, Kenya
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The Masai Mara National Reserve (also spelled Maasai Mara, and known by the locals as 'the Mara') is a large game reserve in south-western Kenya, which is effectively the northern continuation of the Serengeti National Park game reserve in Tanzania. Named after the Maasai people (the traditional inhabitants of the area) and their description of the area when looked at from a viewpoint - "Mara", which is Maa (Maasai language) for spotted: an apt description for the circles of trees, scrub, savannah and cloud shadows that mark the area. It is famous for its exceptional population of Big Cats, game, and the annual migration of zebra, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest from the Serengeti every year from July to October, a migration so immense it is called the Great Migration.
The Masai Mara National Reserve is only a fraction of the Greater Mara Ecosystem, which includes the following Group Ranches; Koiyaki, Lemek, Ol Chorro Oirowua, Olkinyei, Siana, Maji Moto, Naikara, Ol Derkesi, Kerinkani, Oloirien and Kimintet.
The Masai Mara National Reserve (MMNR) covers some 1,510 square kilometres (583 sq mi) in south-western Kenya. It is the northern-most section of the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem, covering some 25,000 square kilometres (9,700 sq mi). It is bounded by the Serengeti Park to the south, the Siria escarpment to the west and Maasai pastoral ranches to the north, east and west. Rainfall in the ecosystem increases markedly along a south-east-north-west gradient, varies in space and time, and is markedly bimodal. The Sand, Talek and Mara are the major rivers draining the reserve. Shrubs and trees fringe most drainage lines and cover hillslopes and hilltops.
The terrain of the reserve is primarily open grassland, with seasonal riverlets. In the south-east region are clumps of the distinctive acacia tree. The western border is the Esoit Oloololo Escarpment of the Rift Valley, and wildlife tends to be most concentrated here, as the swampy ground means that access to water is always good and tourist disruption is minimal. The easternmost border is 224 kilometres (139.2 mi) from Nairobi, and hence it is the eastern regions which are most visited by tourists.
Wildebeest, topi, zebra and Thomson's gazelle migrate into and occupy the Mara reserve from the Serengeti plains to the south and Loita plains in the pastoral ranches to the north-east from July to October or later. Herds of all three species are also resident in the reserve.
All members of the "Big Five" are found in the Masai Mara, although the population of black rhinoceros is severely threatened, with a population of only 37 recorded in 2000. Hippopotami are found in large groups in the Masai Mara and Talek rivers. Cheetah are also found, although their numbers are also threatened, chiefly due to tourist disruption of their daytime hunting. As mentioned above, the plains between the Mara River and the Esoit Oloololo Escarpment are probably the best area for game viewing, in particular regarding lion and cheetah.
As in the Serengeti, the wildebeest are the dominant inhabitants of the Masai Mara, and their numbers are estimated in the millions. Around July of each year these ungainly animals migrate in a vast ensemble north from the Serengeti plains in search of fresh pasture, and return to the south around October. The Great Migration is one of the most impressive natural events worldwide, involving an immensity of herbivores some 1,300,000 wildebeests, 360,000 Thomson's gazelles,97,000 Topi and 191,000 zebras. These numerous migrants are followed along their annual, circular route by a block of hungry predators, most notably lions and hyena.
Numerous other antelopes can be found, including Thomson's and Grant's gazelles, impalas, elands, duikers and Coke's hartebeests. Large herds of zebra are found through the reserve. The plains are also home to the distinctive Masai giraffe as well as the common giraffe. The large Roan antelope and the nocturnal bat-eared fox, rarely present elsewhere in Kenya, can be seen within the reserve borders. The Masai Mara is a major research centre for the spotted hyena. Additionally, over 450 species of birdlife have been identified in the park, including vultures, marabou storks, secretary birds, hornbills, crowned cranes, ostriches, long-crested Eagles, African pygmy-falcons and the lilac-breasted roller, which is the national bird of Kenya.
The Masai Mara Reserve area is administered by Narok County Council and the Mara Conservancy (under contract to manage the Mara Triangle section of the Masai Mara by the Trans-Mara county council), a local nonprofit organization formed by the local Maasai, and contains a number of anti-poaching units. The Masai Mara Conservation area is administered by the Group Ranch Trusts of the Maasai community who also have their own rangers for patrolling the park area. The wildlife roam freely across both the Reserve and Conservation areas which are a continuous wildlife ecosystem.
Game parks are a major source of hard currency for Kenya. Entry fees as of October 2009 are US$60 for adult non-Kenyans and $30 for children. There are a number of lodges and tented camps for tourists inside the Reserve and the Conservation area borders. The tourists/visitors cater for their own expenses unless previously arranged by their agencies.
Although one third of the whole Masai Mara, The Mara Triangle has only one lodge within its boundaries (compared to the numerous camps and lodges on the Narok side) and has well maintained, all weather roads. The rangers patrol regularly which means that there is almost no poaching and therefore excellent game viewing. There is also strict control over vehicle numbers around animal sightings which means a better, more authentic, experience when out on a game drive.
Lodges and camps inside the Reserve include Mara Serena, Governor's camp, Keekorok, and Sarova Mara. In the Conservation area are Royal Mara Safari Lodge, Siana Springs tented camp, Mara Sopa, Elephant Pepper, Mara Simba, and Sekenani camp. Camping fees are US$25 night.
Mara Serena Airport, Musiara Airport and Keekorok Airport are located in the Reserve area of the Masai Mara. Mara Shikar Airport, Kichwa Tembo Airport and Ngerende Airport are located in the Conservation area of the Masai Mara.
The BBC Television show Big Cat Diary is filmed in both the Reserve and Conservation areas of the Masai Mara and highlights scenes from the Reserve's Musiara marsh area and the Leopard Gorge and Fig Tree Ridge areas of the Conservation area. In the Simpsons episode it showed that there where there.
Masai Mara National Reserve is losing animal species at a rate that has scientists concerned, according to a 2009 study.
Published in the May issue of the British Journal of Zoology, (Ilri Scientific Paper_Dynamics of Mara-Serengeti Ungulates in Relation to Land Use Changes) findings blame the increased human settlement in and around the reserve to this dramatic loss of animal species.
“The study provides the most detailed evidence to date on the declines in the ungulate (hoofed animals) populations in The Mara and how this phenomenon is linked to the rapid expansion of human populations near the boundaries of the reserve,” said an article that ran on the website of the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).
ILRI conducted this study between 1989 and 2003. The study, which was funded by the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF), monitored hoofed species in the Maasai Mara on a monthly basis for 15 years.
According to this study, six species including giraffes, impala, warthogs, topis and water-bucks have declined significantly at an alarming rate in the reserve.
The study says that losses were as high as 95 percent for giraffes, 80 percent for warthogs, 76 percent for hartebeest and 67 percent for impala.
Wildebeest and zebra migration
Lioness in masai mara
Female Lion with kill
trevors2u commented on the Site
about 2 years ago
"German government agrees to alternative road route that will address community needs and avoid negative impact on migration"
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