Case study: lands under indigenous peoples' or communal tenure
Although OECMs can be under the control of a range of governance actors, lands and waters under the governance of indigenous peoples and local communities may often be good candidates to meet the definition. OECMs could therefore potentially provide a good opportunity to increase recognition and support for territories and areas conserved by indigenous peoples and local communities (also known as ICCAs) (CBD, 2018). Indigenous peoples have use or management rights over one quarter of the world's land area (Garnett at al., 2018). Indigenous peoples manage these lands in diverse ways and in pursuit of diverse outcomes but in many cases indigenous peoples' management of their lands may often be consistent with biodiversity conservation. ICCAs are widely accepted as places of high conservation and cultural value, contributing to connectivity and landscape-scale conservation (Borrini-Feyerabend et al., 2012). Many such areas meet the definition of a protected area or an OECM, but are currently under-reported in the WDPA. A dedicated database, the Global ICCA Registry, exists to capture information on ICCAs provided by indigenous peoples and local communities.
Percentage of lands managed and/or controlled by indigenous peoples*
Source: Garnett S.T., Burgess N.D., Fa J.E. et al. 2018. A spatial overview of the global importance of Indigenous lands for conservation. Nature Sustainability 1: 369-374.
*Percentage of each degree square mapped as indigenous in at least one of 127 source documents. See full publication for more details on the methodology used.